Local sources told Press TV that the attack took place on Saturday evening at a training base in Pusht-Rod district of the western province of Farah after a quarrel between Afghan army soldiers and US-led foreign troops.
An Afghan army soldier was killed and another was injured in the assault, the governor of Posht-Rod said.
Most of the foreing troops stationed in Pusht-Rod are from the US.
The incident is the latest in a string of attacks by Afghan security personnel on foreign forces.
In a similar incident in November, an Afghan army soldier injured at least three US-led Australian soldiers in southern Uruzgan province.
In April, an Afghan military pilot opened fire on US-led forces at Kabul airport, leaving eight foreign soldiers dead.
The US invaded Afghanistan in 2001 with the stated goal of dismantling the al-Qaeda militants, toppling the Taliban regime, democratizing the country and restoring security to the nation.
A decade after the invasion, security situation remains fragile in Afghanistan despite the presence of around 140,000 US-led foreign forces in the Asian country.
Civilian casualties caused by US-led military operations have triggered deep anger among Afghans, prompting demonstrations throughout the country.
The United States and the NATO leaders have set 2014 as the date to hand over security to local authorities in Afghanistan